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J Reprod Dev. 2016 Dec 20;62(6):537-545. doi: 10.1262/jrd.2016-083. Epub 2016 Jul 29.

The roles of kisspeptin revisited: inside and outside the hypothalamus.

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Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan.


Kisspeptin, encoded by KISS1/Kiss1 gene, is now considered a master regulator of reproductive functions in mammals owing to its involvement in the direct activation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons after binding to its cognate receptor, GPR54. Ever since the discovery of kisspeptin, intensive studies on hypothalamic expression of KISS1/Kiss1 and on physiological roles of hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons have provided clues as to how the brain controls sexual maturation at the onset of puberty and subsequent reproductive performance in mammals. Additionally, emerging evidence indicates the potential involvement of extra-hypothalamic kisspeptin in reproductive functions. Here, we summarize data regarding kisspeptin inside and outside the hypothalamus and revisit the physiological roles of central and peripheral kisspeptins in the reproductive functions of mammals.

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