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Physiol Behav. 2016 Oct 15;165:231-8. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.07.021. Epub 2016 Jul 28.

Overlap between dental anxiety, gagging and Blood-Injection-Injury related fears - A spectrum of one multidimensional phenomenon.

Author information

1
Department of Oral Medicine, Hebrew University-Hadassah School of Dental Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel; Department of Oral Medicine, Oral and Maxillofacial Center, Medical Corps, Israel Defense Forces, Tel-Hashomer, Israel. Electronic address: galit@almoznino.com.
2
Department of Community Dentistry, Hebrew University-Hadassah School of Dental Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel.
3
Department of Oral Medicine, Hebrew University-Hadassah School of Dental Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel.
4
Department of Oral Medicine, Oral and Maxillofacial Center, Medical Corps, Israel Defense Forces, Tel-Hashomer, Israel.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Dental anxiety (DA) and gagging (GAG) are prevalent problems that severely impact social behavior and quality of life. Furthermore, because dental phobia is considered a Blood-Injection-Injury (B-I-I) phobia, the present study contrasted DA, GAG and control subjects regarding the severity of dental anxiety and investigated the comorbidity of GAG, DA and B-I-I fears.

METHODS:

Demographics, Verbal Pain Scale (VPS), Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14), Decay, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT), Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and response to phobic stimuli were collected from 53 GAG, 68 DA and 80 control subjects.

RESULTS:

GAGs exhibited results between DA and controls regarding the likelihood to have high-anxiety/phobia (DA group: OR=55.56; GAG group: OR=17.24), self-assessed dental anxiety (OR=29.14; OR=17.48), fear of dental injections (OR=8.51; OR=2.91) and dental drills (OR=12.02; OR=5.82). DA and GAG had similar results regarding: DAS score (p=0.13), fear of blood tests (OR=4.68; OR=4.09) and blood donations (OR=3.13; OR=3.10). Overlap between GAG, DA and a B-I-I fear was observed. GAG and DA patients and worse maximal VPS and OHIP-14 scores retained their significant positive association with the DAS score in the multivariate analysis.

CONCLUSIONS:

The co-occurrence of DA, GAG and B-I-I-related fears suggests these entities are linked. However, different anxiety levels, symptoms and triggers, reflect the broad spectrum of fear of medical/dental situations.

KEYWORDS:

Blood-Injection-Injury phobia; Dental Anxiety Scale; Dental fear; Dental phobia; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Exacerbated gag reflex

PMID:
27477832
DOI:
10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.07.021
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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