Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Semin Nephrol. 2016 Jul;36(4):305-18. doi: 10.1016/j.semnephrol.2016.05.007.

Consequences of CKD on Functioning.

Author information

1
Division of Nephrology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, California; Department of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok, Thailand.
2
Division of Nephrology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, California.
3
Division of Nephrology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, California. Electronic address: kirsten.johansen@ucsf.edu.

Abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent in the United States and throughout the world,(1) with approximately 13% of adults affected.(2) In addition, according to recent estimates, almost half of patients with CKD stages 3 to 5 are 70 years of age and older.(2) In the United States, the number of prevalent end-stage renal disease cases continues to increase in patients older than age 65. In light of the demographic characteristics of patients with CKD and ESRD, there has been considerable focus on associations between CKD and cardiovascular outcomes.(3) Until recently, less attention had been paid to other consequences of CKD in general and among older individuals with CKD in particular, but there is now solid evidence linking CKD with impairments of physical function, cognitive function, and emotional function and quality of life. This review summarizes available literature on these topics, focusing specifically on physical functioning and frailty, cognitive function, emotional health, including depression and anxiety, and health-related quality of life.

KEYWORDS:

Chronic kidney disease; cognitive function; depression; frailty; health-related quality of life; physical function

PMID:
27475661
PMCID:
PMC4967875
DOI:
10.1016/j.semnephrol.2016.05.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center