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Int J Biol Macromol. 2016 Nov;92:731-738. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.07.090. Epub 2016 Jul 27.

RG-I regions from elderflower pectins substituted on GalA are strong immunomodulators.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: g.t.t.ho@farmasi.uio.no.
2
Natural Medicine Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway.

Abstract

Sambuci flos, also known as elderflower, has traditionally been used and is still in use for treatment of various types of illnesses related to the immune system such as cold, flu, fever and inflammation. Pectic polysaccharides from 50% EtOH, 50°C water and 100°C water extracts from elderflowers were treated with endo-α-d-(1-4)-polygalacturonase after previous de-esterification with the intention of isolating hairy regions and relate variation in structure to immunomodulating activity. High molecular weight sub-fractions (25-29kDa) and medium molecular weight sub-fractions (6-17kDa) were isolated after enzymatic treatment in addition to oligogalacturonides. Structural elucidation indicated that RG-I regions with AG-I and AG-II sidechains were the predominant structures in the high molecular weight sub-fractions, and two of three 1,4-linked GalA units in the rhamnogalacturonan backbone were branched in either position 2 or 3. The medium molecular weight sub-fractions had monomers and linkages typical for both RG-I and RG-II. The results showed that the high molecular RG-I containing polymers exhibit the highest dose-dependent complement fixing and macrophage stimulating activities.

KEYWORDS:

Complement system; Immunological activity; LPS; Macrophage stimulation; Pectic polysaccharides; Sambucus nigra

PMID:
27475233
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.07.090
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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