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Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Dec;215(6):704-711. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2016.07.045. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Genitourinary syndrome of menopause: an overview of clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, etiology, evaluation, and management.

Author information

1
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY.
2
Department of Urology, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY.
3
Foley Plaza Medical, New York, NY.
4
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY; Department of Urology, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY. Electronic address: skysalik@gmail.com.

Abstract

Genitourinary syndrome of menopause, a new term for a condition more renowned as atrophic vaginitis, is a hypoestrogenic condition with external genital, urological, and sexual implications that affects >50% of postmenopausal women. Due to sexual embarrassment and the sensitive nature of discussing symptoms, genitourinary syndrome of menopause is greatly underdiagnosed. The most up-to-date literature pertaining to clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, etiology, evaluation, and management of genitourinary syndrome of menopause is comprehensively reviewed. Early detection and individually tailored pharmacologic (eg, estrogen therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulator, synthetic steroid, oxytocin, and dehydroepiandrosterone) and/or nonpharmacologic (eg, laser therapies, moisturizers and lubricants, homeopathic remedies, and lifestyle modifications) treatment is paramount for not only improving quality of life but also for preventing exacerbation of symptoms in women with this condition.

KEYWORDS:

atrophic vaginitis; dyspareunia; estrogen-progestin therapy; genitourinary syndrome of menopause; hypoestrogenism; menopausal hormone therapy; nonhormonal vaginal therapy; quality of life; urinary incontinence; urogenital atrophy; vaginal maturation index; vulvovaginal atrophy

PMID:
27472999
DOI:
10.1016/j.ajog.2016.07.045
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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