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Lancet HIV. 2016 Aug;3(8):e361-e387. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(16)30087-X. Epub 2016 Jul 19.

Estimates of global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and mortality of HIV, 1980-2015: the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

Collaborators (454)

Wang H, Wolock TM, Carter A, Nguyen G, Kyu HH, Gakidou E, Hay SI, Mills EJ, Trickey A, Msemburi W, Coates MM, Mooney MD, Fraser MS, Sligar A, Salomon J, Larson HJ, Friedman J, Abajobir AA, Abate KH, Abbas KM, Razek MMAE, Abd-Allah F, Abdulle AM, Abera SF, Abubakar I, Abu-Raddad LJ, Abu-Rmeileh NME, Abyu GY, Adebiyi AO, Adedeji IA, Adelekan AL, Adofo K, Adou AK, Ajala ON, Akinyemiju TF, Akseer N, Lami FHA, Al-Aly Z, Alam K, Alam NKM, Alasfoor D, Aldhahri SFS, Aldridge RW, Alegretti MA, Aleman AV, Alemu ZA, Alfonso-Cristancho R, Ali R, Alkerwi A, Alla F, Mohammad R, Al-Raddadi S, Alsharif U, Alvarez E, Alvis-Guzman N, Amare AT, Amberbir A, Amegah AK, Ammar W, Amrock SM, Antonio CAT, Anwari P, Ärnlöv J, Artaman A, Asayesh H, Asghar RJ, Assadi R, Atique S, Atkins LS, Avokpaho EFGA, Awasthi A, Quintanilla BPA, Bacha U, Badawi A, Barac A, Bärnighausen T, Basu A, Bayou TA, Bayou YT, Bazargan-Hejazi S, Beardsley J, Bedi N, Bennett DA, Bensenor IM, Betsu BD, Beyene AS, Bhatia E, Bhutta ZA, Biadgilign S, Bikbov B, Birlik SM, Bisanzio D, Brainin M, Brazinova A, Breitborde NJK, Brown A, Burch M, Butt ZA, Campuzano JC, Cárdenas R, Carrero JJ, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Rivas JC, Catalá-López F, Chang HY, Chang JC, Chavan L, Chen W, Chiang PP, Chibalabala M, Chisumpa VH, Choi JJ, Christopher DJ, Ciobanu LG, Cooper C, Dahiru T, Damtew SA, Dandona L, Dandona R, das Neves J, de Jager P, De Leo D, Degenhardt L, Dellavalle RP, Deribe K, Deribew A, Des Jarlais DC, Dharmaratne SD, Ding EL, Doshi PP, Doyle KE, Driscoll TR, Dubey M, Elshrek YM, Elyazar I, Endries AY, Ermakov SP, Eshrati B, Esteghamati A, Faghmous IDA, Farinha CSES, Faro A, Farvid MS, Farzadfar F, Fereshtehnejad SM, Fernandes JC, Fischer F, Fitchett JRA, Foigt N, Fullman N, Fürst T, Gankpé FG, Gebre T, Gebremedhin AT, Gebru AA, Geleijnse JM, Gessner BD, Gething PW, Ghiwot TT, Giroud M, Gishu MD, Glaser E, Goenka S, Goodridge A, Gopalani SV, Goto A, Gugnani HC, Guimaraes MDC, Gupta R, Gupta R, Gupta V, Haagsma J, Hafezi-Nejad N, Hagan H, Hailu GB, Hamadeh RR, Hamidi S, Hammami M, Hankey GJ, Hao Y, Harb HL, Harikrishnan S, Haro JM, Harun KM, Havmoeller R, Hedayati MT, Heredia-Pi IB, Hoek HW, Horino M, Horita N, Hosgood HD, Hoy DG, Hsairi M, Hu G, Huang H, Huang JJ, Iburg KM, Idrisov BT, Innos K, Iyer VJ, Jacobsen KH, Jahanmehr N, Jakovljevic MB, Javanbakht M, Jayatilleke AU, Jeemon P, Jha V, Jiang G, Jiang Y, Jibat T, Jonas JB, Kabir Z, Kamal R, Kan H, Karch A, Karema CK, Karletsos D, Kasaeian A, Kaul A, Kawakami N, Kayibanda JF, Keiyoro PN, Kemp AH, Kengne AP, Kesavachandran CN, Khader YS, Khalil I, Khan AR, Khan EA, Khang YH, Khubchandani J, Kim YJ, Kinfu Y, Kivipelto M, Kokubo Y, Kosen S, Koul PA, Koyanagi A, Defo BK, Bicer BK, Kulkarni VS, Kumar GA, Lal DK, Lam H, Lam JO, Langan SM, Lansingh VC, Larsson A, Leigh J, Leung R, Li Y, Lim SS, Lipshultz SE, Liu S, Lloyd BK, Logroscino G, Lotufo PA, Lunevicius R, Razek HMAE, Mahdavi M, Mahesh PA, Majdan M, Majeed A, Makhlouf C, Malekzadeh R, Mapoma CC, Marcenes W, Martinez-Raga J, Marzan MB, Masiye F, Mason-Jones AJ, Mayosi BM, McKee M, Meaney PA, Mehndiratta MM, Mekonnen AB, Melaku YA, Memiah P, Memish ZA, Mendoza W, Meretoja A, Meretoja TJ, Mhimbira FA, Miller TR, Mikesell J, Mirarefin M, Mohammad KA, Mohammed S, Mokdad AH, Monasta L, Moradi-Lakeh M, Mori R, Mueller UO, Murimira B, Murthy GVS, Naheed A, Naldi L, Nangia V, Nash D, Nawaz H, Nejjari C, Ngalesoni FN, de Dieu Ngirabega J, Nguyen QL, Nisar MI, Norheim OF, Norman RE, Nyakarahuka L, Ogbo FA, Oh IH, Ojelabi FA, Olusanya BO, Olusanya JO, Opio JN, Oren E, Ota E, Park HY, Park JH, Patil ST, Patten SB, Paul VK, Pearson K, Peprah EK, Pereira DM, Perico N, Pesudovs K, Petzold M, Phillips MR, Pillay JD, Plass D, Polinder S, Pourmalek F, Prokop DM, Qorbani M, Rafay A, Rahimi K, Rahimi-Movaghar V, Rahman M, Rahman MHU, Rahman SU, Rai RK, Rajsic S, Ram U, Rana SM, Rao PV, Remuzzi G, Rojas-Rueda D, Ronfani L, Roshandel G, Roy A, Ruhago GM, Saeedi MY, Sagar R, Saleh MM, Sanabria JR, Santos IS, Sarmiento-Suarez R, Sartorius B, Sawhney M, Schutte AE, Schwebel DC, Seedat S, Sepanlou SG, Servan-Mori EE, Shaikh MA, Sharma R, She J, Sheikhbahaei S, Shen J, Shibuya K, Shin HH, Sigfusdottir ID, Silpakit N, Silva DAS, Silveira DGA, Simard EP, Sindi S, Singh JA, Singh OP, Singh PK, Skirbekk V, Sliwa K, Soneji S, Sorensen RJD, Soriano JB, Soti DO, Sreeramareddy CT, Stathopoulou V, Steel N, Sunguya BF, Swaminathan S, Sykes BL, Tabarés-Seisdedos R, Talongwa RT, Tavakkoli M, Taye B, Tedla BA, Tekle T, Shifa GT, Temesgen AM, Terkawi AS, Tesfay FH, Tessema GA, Thapa K, Thomson AJ, Thorne-Lyman AL, Tobe-Gai R, Topor-Madry R, Towbin JA, Tran BX, Dimbuene ZT, Tsilimparis N, Tura AK, Ukwaja KN, Uneke CJ, Uthman OA, Venketasubramanian N, Vladimirov SK, Vlassov VV, Vollset SE, Wang L, Weiderpass E, Weintraub RG, Werdecker A, Westerman R, Wijeratne T, Wilkinson JD, Wiysonge CS, Wolfe CDA, Won S, Wong JQ, Xu G, Yadav AK, Yakob B, Yalew AZ, Yano Y, Yaseri M, Yebyo HG, Yip P, Yonemoto N, Yoon SJ, Younis MZ, Yu C, Yu S, Zaidi Z, Zaki MES, Zeeb H, Zhang H, Zhao Y, Zodpey S, Zoeckler L, Zuhlke LJ, Lopez AD, Murray CJL.

Erratum in

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Timely assessment of the burden of HIV/AIDS is essential for policy setting and programme evaluation. In this report from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we provide national estimates of levels and trends of HIV/AIDS incidence, prevalence, coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and mortality for 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015.

METHODS:

For countries without high-quality vital registration data, we estimated prevalence and incidence with data from antenatal care clinics and population-based seroprevalence surveys, and with assumptions by age and sex on initial CD4 distribution at infection, CD4 progression rates (probability of progression from higher to lower CD4 cell-count category), on and off antiretroviral therapy (ART) mortality, and mortality from all other causes. Our estimation strategy links the GBD 2015 assessment of all-cause mortality and estimation of incidence and prevalence so that for each draw from the uncertainty distribution all assumptions used in each step are internally consistent. We estimated incidence, prevalence, and death with GBD versions of the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) and Spectrum software originally developed by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). We used an open-source version of EPP and recoded Spectrum for speed, and used updated assumptions from systematic reviews of the literature and GBD demographic data. For countries with high-quality vital registration data, we developed the cohort incidence bias adjustment model to estimate HIV incidence and prevalence largely from the number of deaths caused by HIV recorded in cause-of-death statistics. We corrected these statistics for garbage coding and HIV misclassification.

FINDINGS:

Global HIV incidence reached its peak in 1997, at 3·3 million new infections (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3·1-3·4 million). Annual incidence has stayed relatively constant at about 2·6 million per year (range 2·5-2·8 million) since 2005, after a period of fast decline between 1997 and 2005. The number of people living with HIV/AIDS has been steadily increasing and reached 38·8 million (95% UI 37·6-40·4 million) in 2015. At the same time, HIV/AIDS mortality has been declining at a steady pace, from a peak of 1·8 million deaths (95% UI 1·7-1·9 million) in 2005, to 1·2 million deaths (1·1-1·3 million) in 2015. We recorded substantial heterogeneity in the levels and trends of HIV/AIDS across countries. Although many countries have experienced decreases in HIV/AIDS mortality and in annual new infections, other countries have had slowdowns or increases in rates of change in annual new infections.

INTERPRETATION:

Scale-up of ART and prevention of mother-to-child transmission has been one of the great successes of global health in the past two decades. However, in the past decade, progress in reducing new infections has been slow, development assistance for health devoted to HIV has stagnated, and resources for health in low-income countries have grown slowly. Achievement of the new ambitious goals for HIV enshrined in Sustainable Development Goal 3 and the 90-90-90 UNAIDS targets will be challenging, and will need continued efforts from governments and international agencies in the next 15 years to end AIDS by 2030.

FUNDING:

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and National Institute of Mental Health and National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health.

PMID:
27470028
PMCID:
PMC5056319
DOI:
10.1016/S2352-3018(16)30087-X
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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