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Acta Otolaryngol. 2016 Dec;136(12):1273-1277. Epub 2016 Jul 28.

Twice-daily application of topical corticosteroids with a squirt system for patients with steroid-responsive olfactory impairment.

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a Department of Otolaryngology , Taipei Veterans General Hospital , Taipei , Taiwan.
b Institute of Brain Science , National Yang-Ming University , Taipei , Taiwan.
c Department of Otolaryngology , National Yang-Ming University , Taipei , Taiwan.



Twice-daily topical corticosteroid treatment using a squirt system was beneficial in maintaining improvements in olfactory dysfunction which had been achieved by oral steroid treatment.


Some patients suffering from olfactory dysfunction respond well to corticosteroids. However, maintaining these improvements is challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maintenance effect of twice-daily topical steroid treatment using a squirt system.


Twenty-two anosmic patients with an increase in odor threshold, discrimination, and identification (TDI) scores in Sniffin' Sticks tests by more than six points after 1-week of oral steroid treatment were enrolled. All the patients used a squirt system to apply topical corticosteroids and were followed up at 1, 3, and 6 months.


Nineteen, 16, and 10 patients were followed-up at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment, respectively. All the patients had significant visual analog scale scores improvements compared to pre-treatment. The mean improvements in TDI scores were 9.80 (p < 0.001), 11.58 (p = 0.001), and 13.87 (p = 0.005) after 1, 3, and 6 months of treatment, respectively. The self-rated and objective olfactory function scores were maintained with steroid squirt therapy without significant decline, even in the patients who were followed up for 6 months.


Corticosteroid; Sniffin’ Sticks Test; olfactory dysfunction; smell; squirt; steroid responsive anosmia

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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