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Cell Discov. 2015 May 12;1:15007. doi: 10.1038/celldisc.2015.7. eCollection 2015.

Efficient genome editing in filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei using the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

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CAS-Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Shanghai, China.


Filamentous fungi have wide applications in biotechnology. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful genome-editing method that facilitates genetic alterations of genomes in a variety of organisms. However, a genome-editing approach has not been reported in filamentous fungi. Here, we demonstrated the establishment of a CRISPR/Cas9 system in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei by specific codon optimization and in vitro RNA transcription. It was shown that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was controllable and conditional through inducible Cas9 expression. This system generated site-specific mutations in target genes through efficient homologous recombination, even using short homology arms. This system also provided an applicable and promising approach to targeting multiple genes simultaneously. Our results illustrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful genome-manipulating tool for T. reesei and most likely for other filamentous fungal species, which may accelerate studies on functional genomics and strain improvement in these filamentous fungi.


CRISPR/Cas9; Trichoderma reesei; filamentous fungus; genome-editing

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