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Front Plant Sci. 2016 Jul 12;7:1019. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01019. eCollection 2016.

Multi-Substrate Terpene Synthases: Their Occurrence and Physiological Significance.

Author information

1
Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences Tartu, Estonia.
2
Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life SciencesTartu, Estonia; Estonian Academy of SciencesTallinn, Estonia.

Abstract

Terpene synthases are responsible for synthesis of a large number of terpenes in plants using substrates provided by two distinct metabolic pathways, the mevalonate-dependent pathway that is located in cytosol and has been suggested to be responsible for synthesis of sesquiterpenes (C15), and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway located in plastids and suggested to be responsible for the synthesis of hemi- (C5), mono- (C10), and diterpenes (C20). Recent advances in characterization of genes and enzymes responsible for substrate and end product biosynthesis as well as efforts in metabolic engineering have demonstrated existence of a number of multi-substrate terpene synthases. This review summarizes the progress in the characterization of such multi-substrate terpene synthases and suggests that the presence of multi-substrate use might have been significantly underestimated. Multi-substrate use could lead to important changes in terpene product profiles upon substrate profile changes under perturbation of metabolism in stressed plants as well as under certain developmental stages. We therefore argue that multi-substrate use can be significant under physiological conditions and can result in complicate modifications in terpene profiles.

KEYWORDS:

monoterpene synthesis; multi-substrate terpene synthases; prenyltransferases; sesquiterpene synthesis; subcellular compartmentalization; terpene engineering; terpene metabolites

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