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Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Sep;70(9):1009-14. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2016.133. Epub 2016 Jul 27.

The impact of 1-year vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D status in athletes: a dose-response study.

Author information

1
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
2
Netherlands Olympic Committee*Netherlands Sports Confederation (NOC*NSF), Arnhem, The Netherlands.
3
DSM Biotechnology Center, Delft, The Netherlands.
4
NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:

To assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Dutch athletes and to define the required dosage of vitamin D3 supplementation to prevent vitamin D deficiency over the course of a year.

SUBJECTS/METHODS:

Blood samples were collected from 128 highly trained athletes to assess total 25(OH)D concentration. Of these 128 athletes, 54 male and 48 female athletes (18-32 years) were included in a randomized, double blind, dose-response study. Athletes with either a deficient (<50 nmol/l) or an insufficient (50-75 nmol/l) 25(OH)D concentration were randomly assigned to take 400, 1100 or 2200 IU vitamin D3 per day orally for 1 year. Athletes who had a total 25(OH)D concentration above 75 nmol/l at baseline continued with the study protocol without receiving vitamin D supplements. Serum total 25(OH)D concentration was assessed every 3 months, as well as dietary vitamin D intake and sunlight exposure.

RESULTS:

Nearly 70% of all athletes showed an insufficient (50-75 nmol/l) or a deficient (<50 nmol/l) 25(OH)D concentration at baseline. After 12 months, serum 25(OH)D concentration had increased more in the 2200 IU/day group (+50±27 nmol/l) than the sufficient group receiving no supplements (+4±17 nmol/l; P<0.01) and the 1100 IU/day group (+25±23 nmol/l; P<0.05). Supplementation with 2200 IU/day vitamin D resulted in a sufficient 25(OH)D concentration in 80% of the athletes after 12 months.

CONCLUSIONS:

Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in athletes. Athletes with a deficient or an insufficient 25(OH)D concentration can achieve a sufficient 25(OH)D concentration within 3 months by taking 2200 IU/day.

PMID:
27460266
DOI:
10.1038/ejcn.2016.133
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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