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J Magn Reson Imaging. 2017 Mar;45(3):786-794. doi: 10.1002/jmri.25389. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Optimal configuration of respiratory navigator gating for the quantification of left ventricular strain using spiral cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) MRI.

Author information

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.
2
Department of Pediatrics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.
3
Institute for Advanced Application, Geisinger Health System, Danville, Pennsylvania, USA.
4
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.
5
MR R&D Collaborations, Siemens Healthcare, Atlanta, GA, USA.
6
Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.
7
Department of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To determine the optimal respiratory navigator gating configuration for the quantification of left ventricular strain using spiral cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) MRI.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Two-dimensional spiral cine DENSE was performed on a 3 Tesla MRI using two single-navigator configurations (retrospective, prospective) and a combined "dual-navigator" configuration in 10 healthy adults and 20 healthy children. The adults also underwent breathhold DENSE as a reference standard for comparisons. Peak left ventricular strains, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and navigator efficiency were compared. Subjects also underwent dual-navigator gating with and without visual feedback to determine the effect on navigator efficiency.

RESULTS:

There were no differences in circumferential, radial, and longitudinal strains between navigator-gated and breathhold DENSE (P = 0.09-0.95) (as confidence intervals, retrospective: [-1.0%-1.1%], [-7.4%-2.0%], [-1.0%-1.2%]; prospective: [-0.6%-2.7%], [-2.8%-8.3%], [-0.3%-2.9%]; dual: [-1.6%-0.5%], [-8.3%-3.2%], [-0.8%-1.9%], respectively). The dual configuration maintained SNR compared with breathhold acquisitions (16 versus 18, P = 0.06). SNR for the prospective configuration was lower than for the dual navigator in adults (P = 0.004) and children (P < 0.001). Navigator efficiency was higher (P < 0.001) for both retrospective (54%) and prospective (56%) configurations compared with the dual configuration (35%). Visual feedback improved the dual configuration navigator efficiency to 55% (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION:

When quantifying left ventricular strains using spiral cine DENSE MRI, a dual navigator configuration results in the highest SNR in adults and children. In adults, a retrospective configuration has good navigator efficiency without a substantial drop in SNR. Prospective gating should be avoided because it has the lowest SNR. Visual feedback represents an effective option to maintain navigator efficiency while using a dual navigator configuration.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:

2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:786-794.

KEYWORDS:

DENSE; breathholds; navigator efficiency; respiratory navigator; signal-to-noise ratio; strain

PMID:
27458823
PMCID:
PMC5269554
DOI:
10.1002/jmri.25389
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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