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Magn Reson Imaging. 2016 Nov;34(9):1248-1255. doi: 10.1016/j.mri.2016.07.004. Epub 2016 Jul 22.

Assessment of a simplified spin and gradient echo (sSAGE) approach for human brain tumor perfusion imaging.

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Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, 1161 21st Ave. S, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.
Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, 1161 21st Ave. S, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Electronic address:


The goal of this study was to validate a simplified spin- and gradient-echo (sSAGE) approach to obtain T1-corrected dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) data in a clinical brain tumor population. A five-echo SAGE sequence was used to acquire DSC-MRI data (n=8 patients, 3 primary glioma, and 5 brain metastases). The ΔR2 and ΔR2 time series obtained from a nonlinear fit of all echoes (SAGE) were compared to ΔR2 and ΔR2 time series obtained analytically (sSAGE) using three echoes (two GEs and one SE). Through the use of multiple echoes, both methods removed T1 leakage effects from the ΔR2 and ΔR2 time series, and the sSAGE ΔR2 and ΔR2 time series were highly correlated with those from SAGE, with average correlations of 0.9. The resulting hemodynamic parameters included GE and SE cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean vessel diameter (mVD), volume transfer constant (Ktrans), and volume fraction of the extravascular extracellular space (ve). For each metric, there was good correlation (>0.86) between sSAGE and SAGE, with no significant differences. The sSAGE method provides T1-corrected GE and SE DSC-MRI parameters in an efficient and clinically feasible manner.


Contrast agent leakage; Dynamic susceptibility-contrast MRI; Perfusion imaging; Permeability; Spin-echo and gradient-echo EPI

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