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Diabetes Care. 2016 Aug;39(8):1448-57. doi: 10.2337/dc16-0513.

Metabolic Effects of Monounsaturated Fatty Acid-Enriched Diets Compared With Carbohydrate or Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Enriched Diets in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Author information

1
Pritzker School of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.
2
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
3
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
4
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA frank.hu@channing.harvard.edu.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Dietary interventions in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are important for preventing long-term complications. Although a healthy diet is crucial, there is still uncertainty about the optimal macronutrient composition. We performed a meta-analysis comparing diets high in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) to diets high in carbohydrates (CHO) or in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on metabolic risk factors in patients with T2D.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

We systematically reviewed PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases and prior systematic reviews and meta-analyses to identify interventions assessing HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, body weight, or systolic/diastolic blood pressure. Meta-analyses were conducted using both fixed- and random-effects models to calculate the weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% CI.

RESULTS:

We identified 24 studies totaling 1,460 participants comparing high-MUFA to high-CHO diets and 4 studies totaling 44 participants comparing high-MUFA to high-PUFA diets. When comparing high-MUFA to high-CHO diets, there were significant reductions in fasting plasma glucose (WMD -0.57 mmol/L [95% CI -0.76, -0.39]), triglycerides (-0.31 mmol/L [-0.44, -0.18]), body weight (-1.56 kg [-2.89, -0.23]), and systolic blood pressure (-2.31 mmHg [-4.13, -0.49]) along with significant increases in HDL cholesterol (0.06 mmol/L [0.02, 0.10]). When high-MUFA diets were compared with high-PUFA diets, there was a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (-0.87 mmol/L [-1.67, -0.07]). All of the outcomes had low to medium levels of heterogeneity, ranging from 0.0 to 69.5% for diastolic blood pressure (Phet = 0.011).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our meta-analysis provides evidence that consuming diets high in MUFA can improve metabolic risk factors among patients with T2D.

PMID:
27457635
PMCID:
PMC4955926
DOI:
10.2337/dc16-0513
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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