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Anal Bioanal Chem. 2016 Sep;408(24):6649-58. doi: 10.1007/s00216-016-9778-3. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Identification of fungal metabolites from inside Gallus gallus domesticus eggshells by non-invasively detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Author information

1
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.
2
Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.
3
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA. cedavis@ucdavis.edu.
4
Center for Nano and Micro Manufacturing (CNM2), University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA. cedavis@ucdavis.edu.

Abstract

The natural porosity of eggshells allows hen eggs to become contaminated with microbes from the nesting material and environment. Those microorganisms can later proliferate due to the humid ambient conditions while stored in refrigerators, causing a potential health hazard to the consumer. The microbes' volatile organic compounds (mVOCs) are released by both fungi and bacteria. We studied mVOCs produced by aging eggs likely contaminated by fungi and fresh eggs using the non-invasive detection method of gas-phase sampling of volatiles followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Two different fungal species (Cladosporium macrocarpum and Botrytis cinerea) and two different bacteria species (Stenotrophomas rhizophila and Pseudomonas argentinensis) were identified inside the studied eggs. Two compounds believed to originate from the fungi themselves were identified. One fungus-specific compound was found in both egg and the fungi: trichloromethane. Graphical abstract Trichloromethane is a potential biomarker of fungal contamination of eggs.

KEYWORDS:

Bacteria; Fungi; Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS); Hen egg; Solid-phase microextraction (SPME); Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

PMID:
27457106
PMCID:
PMC5014728
DOI:
10.1007/s00216-016-9778-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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