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J Adolesc. 2016 Oct;52:1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.06.009. Epub 2016 Jul 22.

The management and expression of pride: Age and gender effects across adolescence.

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Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, United States. Electronic address:
Western Psychological Services, United States.
St. Mary's College of Maryland, United States.
College of William & Mary, United States.
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, United States.


Understanding of the role that positive emotions play in adolescent social development requires studying the normative development of these emotions. This research examined pride expression and management across adolescence, focusing on gender and developmental differences. Participants were 206 Caucasian youth (52.9% girls) in grades 5 (Mage = 11.10 years), 8 (Mage = 14.45), 11 (Mage = 17.26), and university (Mage = 19.61). Youth responded to two vignettes assessing reactions to pride-eliciting situations. Compared to boys, girls reported more intense pride experience and a higher likelihood of expressing pride. Increases across adolescence were found for self-efficacy in suppressing pride expression, and for expressing modesty in pride-eliciting situations. Older adolescents were less likely than younger adolescents to expect to receive a negative peer reaction when inhibiting pride. These results indicate the importance of gender-specific examinations of pride across adolescent development with implications for adaptive psychosocial functioning and positive psychology.


Adolescence; Developmental differences; Emotion regulation; Gender; Pride

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