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Int J Food Microbiol. 2016 Dec 19;239:125-132. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2016.07.025. Epub 2016 Jul 19.

Salivary and fecal microbiota and metabolome of celiac children under gluten-free diet.

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Department of Soil, Plant and Food Science, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Via G. Amendola 165/a, 70126 Bari, Italy. Electronic address:
Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
Department of Soil, Plant and Food Science, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Via G. Amendola 165/a, 70126 Bari, Italy.
Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Division of Microbiology, University of Naples Federico II, Portici, Italy.


Celiac disease (CD) is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder resulting from the combination of genetic predisposition and gluten ingestion. A life-long gluten free diet (GFD) is the only therapeutic approach. Dysbiosis, which can precede the CD pathogenesis and/or persist when subjects are on GFD, is reviewed and discussed. Salivary microbiota and metabolome differed between healthy and celiac children treated under GFD (T-CD) for at least two years. The type of GFD (African- vs Italian-style) modified the microbiota and metabolome of Saharawi T-CD children. Different studies showed bacterial dysbiosis at duodenal and/or fecal level of patients with active untreated CD (U-CD) and T-CD compared to healthy subjects. The ratio of protective anti-inflammatory bacteria such as Lactobacillus-Bifidobacterium to potentially harmful Bacteroides-Enterobacteriaceae was the lowest in U-CD and T-CD children. In agreement with dysbiosis, serum, fecal and urinary metabolome from U-CD and T-CD patients showed altered levels of free amino acids and volatile organic compounds. However, consensus across studies defining specific bacteria and metabolites in U-CD or T-CD patients is still lacking. Future research efforts are required to determine the relationships between CD and oral and intestinal microbiotas to improve the composition of GFD for restoring the gut dysbiosis as a preventative or therapeutic approach for CD.


Celiac disease; Gluten-free diet; Metabolome; Microbiota

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