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Trends Neurosci. 2016 Sep;39(9):614-624. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2016.06.007. Epub 2016 Jul 20.

Enteric Neuronal Regulation of Intestinal Inflammation.

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Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 620 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA.
Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 650 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:


Recent research has highlighted the importance of the two-way interaction between the nervous and immune systems. This interaction is particularly important in the bowel because of the unique properties of this organ. The lumen of the gut is lined by a very large but remarkably thin surface that separates the body from the enteric microbiome. Immune defenses against microbial invasion are thus well developed and neuroimmune interactions are important in regulating and integrating these defenses. Important concepts in the phylogeny of neuroimmunity, enteric neuronal and glial regulation of immunity, changes that occur in the enteric nervous system during inflammation, the fundamental role of serotonin (5-HT) in enteric neuroimmune mechanisms, and future perspectives are reviewed.


5-HT; enteric glia; enteric nervous system; inflammatory bowel disease; microbiome; neuroimmunity; serotonin

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