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Drug Resist Updat. 2016 Jul;27:14-29. doi: 10.1016/j.drup.2016.05.001. Epub 2016 May 13.

Overcoming ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance: Molecular mechanisms and novel therapeutic drug strategies.

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Department of Hematology and Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA.
The Fred Wyszkowski Cancer Research Laboratory, Department of Biology, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel.
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA.
Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John's University, Queens, NY 11439, USA. Electronic address:
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John's University, Queens, NY 11439, USA. Electronic address:


Multidrug resistance is a key determinant of cancer chemotherapy failure. One of the major causes of multidrug resistance is the enhanced efflux of drugs by membrane ABC transporters. Targeting ABC transporters projects a promising approach to eliminating or suppressing drug resistance in cancer treatment. To reveal the functional mechanisms of ABC transporters in drug resistance, extensive studies have been conducted from identifying drug binding sites to elucidating structural dynamics. In this review article, we examined the recent crystal structures of ABC proteins to depict the functionally important structural elements, such as domains, conserved motifs, and critical amino acids that are involved in ATP-binding and drug efflux. We inspected the drug-binding sites on ABC proteins and the molecular mechanisms of various substrate interactions with the drug binding pocket. While our continuous battle against drug resistance is far from over, new approaches and technologies have emerged to push forward our frontier. Most recent developments in anti-MDR strategies include P-gp inhibitors, RNA-interference, nano-medicines, and delivering combination strategies. With the advent of the 'Omics' era - genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics - these disciplines play an important role in fighting the battle against chemoresistance by further unraveling the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance and shed light on medical therapies that specifically target MDR.


ABC transporter; Cancer chemotherapy; Multidrug resistance; Nanoparticle; Next generation sequencing; Novel drug target; P-glycoprotein

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