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Int J Sports Med. 1989 May;10 Suppl 1:S11-6.

Nationwide survey on nutritional habits in elite athletes. Part II. Mineral and vitamin intake.

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Department of Physiology, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands.


The nutritional habits of elite athletes competing at a national and international top level were determined. Groups of endurance strength, and team sport athletes participated. All athletes trained at least 1-2 h daily. The purpose of the study was to quantify the mineral and vitamin intake and to identify the magnitude of the nutrient supplementation use. Information on food intake was obtained by a 4- or 7-day food diary. It was found that calcium and iron intake was positively related to energy intake. In low energy intakes (less than 10 MJ) iron intake might be insufficient. In general, vitamin intake with food was in agreement with the Dutch recommendations. However, if energy intake is high (greater than 20 MJ) the amount of refined carbohydrate is increased. Consequently, the nutrient density for vitamin B1 drops. Therefore, under these conditions, supplementation for vitamin B1 must be considered. The low vitamin intake found in lower energy intakes can be improved by proper nutritional advice. In body building and in professional cycling, high dosages of vitamins are used. The other groups of athletes used only moderate quantities of vitamin supplements. It is concluded that vitamin and mineral intake is sufficient, when energy intake ranges between 10 and 20 MJ/day.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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