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Chem Biodivers. 2016 Oct;13(10):1380-1390. doi: 10.1002/cbdv.201600082.

Secondary Metabolites, Glandular Trichomes and Biological Activity of Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana from Central Italy.

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Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University, P.le Aldo Moro 5, IT-00185, Rome.
Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University, P.le Aldo Moro 5, IT-00185, Rome.
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Milan, via Mangiagalli 25, IT-20133, Milan.
School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, via S. Agostino 1, IT-62032, Camerino.
School of Bioscience and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, via Pontoni 5, IT-62032, Camerino.
School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino, via Sant'Agostino 1, IT-62032, Camerino.
School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, via S. Agostino 1, IT-62032, Camerino.


Sideritis montana subsp. montana is a small annual herb occurring in countries bordering the Mediterranean and Balkan regions. The secondary metabolism of this plant has not been fully explored so far. The aim of the present study was to understand the complex mixture of secondary metabolites and the type of secretory structures. The polar constituents were isolated by column chromatography from the ethanolic extract, and their structure was elucidated by NMR and MS. The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC/MS. The plant indumentum was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. To complete the work, the essential oil antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity on tumor cells were evaluated by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and MTT methods. Four different classes of secondary metabolites were isolated, namely flavonoids, caffeoylquinic derivatives, glycosidic hydroquinones and iridoids. The essential oil was mainly characterized by sesquiterpenene hydrocarbons. Peltate and long-capitate hairs were the main sites where terpenes and polar constituents are produced. The secondary metabolites found in S. montana subsp. montana are of chemotaxonomic interest, some of them being typical of the genus Sideritis. The trichomes types observed partially differ from those described in other members of the genus Sideritis. The essential oil showed noteworthy inhibition on tumor cells.


Biological activities; Essential oil; Glandular trichomes; Polar constituents; Sideritis montana subsp. montana

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