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Trends Immunol. 2016 Sep;37(9):608-620. doi: 10.1016/j.it.2016.06.006. Epub 2016 Jul 19.

Astrocytes: Key Regulators of Neuroinflammation.

Author information

1
Institute of Experimental Neurology (INSpe), Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.
2
Institute of Experimental Neurology (INSpe), Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: farina.cinthia@hsr.it.

Abstract

Astrocytes are crucial regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses in the injured central nervous system. Depending on timing and context, astrocyte activity may exacerbate inflammatory reactions and tissue damage, or promote immunosuppression and tissue repair. Recent literature has unveiled key factors and intracellular signaling pathways that govern astrocyte behavior during neuroinflammation. Here we have re-visited in vivo studies on astrocyte signaling in neuroinflammatory models focusing on evidences obtained from the analysis of transgenic mice where distinct genes involved in ligand binding, transcriptional regulation and cell communication have been manipulated in astrocytes. The integration of in vivo observations with in vitro data clarifies precise signaling steps, highlights the crosstalk among pathways and identifies shared effector mechanisms in neuroinflammation.

PMID:
27443914
DOI:
10.1016/j.it.2016.06.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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