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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 Jul 26;68(4):396-410. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.05.048.

High-Risk Cardiac Disease in Pregnancy: Part I.

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Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:
Heart Institute, Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot, Hebrew University and Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel.
Department of Cardiology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.
University of Toronto Obstetric Medicine and Pregnancy and Heart Disease Program, Toronto Congenital Cardiac Centre for Adults, Mount Sinai Hospital and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


The incidence of pregnancy in women with cardiovascular disease is rising, primarily due to the increased number of women with congenital heart disease reaching childbearing age and the changing demographics associated with advancing maternal age. Although most cardiac conditions are well tolerated during pregnancy and women can deliver safely with favorable outcomes, there are some cardiac conditions that have significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this paper is to review the available published reports and provide recommendations on the management of women with high-risk cardiovascular conditions during pregnancy.


myocardial infarction; pregnancy; prosthetic valves; valvular heart disease

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