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J Perinatol. 2016 Oct;36(10):890-6. doi: 10.1038/jp.2016.108. Epub 2016 Jul 21.

Impact of pulmonary hypertension on neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a cohort study.

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Department of Neonatology, Maternal and Perinatal Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.



To evaluate the impact of pulmonary hypertension (PH) on long-term growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).


A single-center retrospective cohort of preterm infants born at <28 weeks gestational age from 2000 to 2011 was evaluated at 3 years of age. Growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes were compared among 3 groups: non-BPD, BPD without PH and BPD with PH. BPD was defined according to oxygen demand at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. PH was diagnosed by echocardiography during the neonatal intensive care unit stay.


Sixty-two infants without BPD, 60 with BPD without PH and 20 with BPD with PH were analyzed. Regardless of PH status, somatic growth was smaller in both BPD groups of infants than in non-BPD infants, with further reduction in the group having BPD with PH. Furthermore, a developmental quotient of <70 was more prevalent in the BPD infants with PH than in the BPD infants without PH (odds ratio (OR): 4.37; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.16 to 16.5). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that BPD with PH was one of the independent perinatal risk factors for developmental quotient <70 at 3 years of age (OR: 4.94, 95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 24.1).


PH had an additional negative effect on long-term growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely preterm infants with BPD.

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