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PeerJ. 2016 Jul 5;4:e2195. doi: 10.7717/peerj.2195. eCollection 2016.

Altered expression profile of glycolytic enzymes during testicular ischemia reperfusion injury is associated with the p53/TIGAR pathway: effect of fructose 1,6-diphosphate.

Author information

1
Faculty of Medicine-Department of Biochemistry, Kuwait University , Jabriyah , Kuwait.
2
Faculty of Medicine-Department of Anatomy, Kuwait University , Jabriyah , Kuwait.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Testicular ischemia reperfusion injury (tIRI) is considered the mechanism underlying the pathology of testicular torsion and detorsion. Left untreated, tIRI can induce testis dysfunction, damage to spermatogenesis and possible infertility. In this study, we aimed to assess the activities and expression of glycolytic enzymes (GEs) in the testis and their possible modulation during tIRI. The effect of fructose 1,6-diphosphate (FDP), a glycolytic intermediate, on tIRI was also investigated.

METHODS:

Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham, unilateral tIRI, and tIRI + FDP (2 mg/kg). tIRI was induced by occlusion of the testicular artery for 1 h followed by 4 h of reperfusion. FDP was injected peritoneally 30 min prior to reperfusion. Histological and biochemical analyses were used to assess damage to spermatogenesis, activities of major GEs, and energy and oxidative stress markers. The relative mRNA expression of GEs was evaluated by real-time PCR. ELISA and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of p53 and TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR).

RESULTS:

Histological analysis revealed tIRI-induced spermatogenic damage as represented by a significant decrease in the Johnsen biopsy score. In addition, tIRI reduced the activities of hexokinase 1, phosphofructokinase-1, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and lactate dehydrogenase C. However, mRNA expression downregulation was detected only for hexokinase 1, phosphoglycerate kinase 2, and lactate dehydrogenase C. ATP and NADPH depletion was also induced by tIRI and was accompanied by an increased Malondialdehyde concentration, reduced glutathione level, and reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities. The immunoexpression of p53 and TIGAR was markedly increased after tIRI. The above tIRI-induced alterations were attenuated by FDP treatment.

DISCUSSION:

Our findings indicate that tIRI-induced spermatogenic damage is associated with dysregulation of GE activity and gene expression, which were associated with activation of the TIGAR/p53 pathway. FDP treatment had a beneficial effect on alleviating the damaging effects of tIRI. This study further emphasizes the importance of metabolic regulation for proper spermatogenesis.

KEYWORDS:

Apoptosis; Fructose 1,6-diphosphate; Gene expression regulation; Glycolytic enzymes; Oxidative stress; Testicular ischemia reperfusion injury

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