Send to

Choose Destination
Drug Metab Dispos. 2016 Oct;44(10):1569-78. doi: 10.1124/dmd.116.071639. Epub 2016 Jul 20.

The Use of In Vitro Data and Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Predict Drug Metabolite Exposure: Desipramine Exposure in Cytochrome P4502D6 Extensive and Poor Metabolizers Following Administration of Imipramine.

Author information

Department of Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics, and Metabolism, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut
Department of Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics, and Metabolism, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut.


Major circulating drug metabolites can be as important as the drugs themselves in efficacy and safety, so establishing methods whereby exposure to major metabolites following administration of parent drug can be predicted is important. In this study, imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, and its major metabolite desipramine were selected as a model system to develop metabolite prediction methods. Imipramine undergoes N-demethylation to form the active metabolite desipramine, and both imipramine and desipramine are converted to hydroxylated metabolites by the polymorphic enzyme CYP2D6. The objective of the present study is to determine whether the human pharmacokinetics of desipramine following dosing of imipramine can be predicted using static and dynamic physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models from in vitro input data for CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer (EM) and poor metabolizer (PM) populations. The intrinsic metabolic clearances of parent drug and metabolite were estimated using human liver microsomes (CYP2D6 PM and EM) and hepatocytes. Passive diffusion clearance of desipramine, used in the estimation of availability of the metabolite, was predicted from passive permeability and hepatocyte surface area. The predicted area under the curve (AUCm/AUCp) of desipramine/imipramine was 12- to 20-fold higher in PM compared with EM subjects following i.v. or oral doses of imipramine using the static model. Moreover, the PBPK model was able to recover simultaneously plasma profiles of imipramine and desipramine in populations with different phenotypes of CYP2D6. This example suggested that mechanistic PBPK modeling combined with information obtained from in vitro studies can provide quantitative solutions to predict in vivo pharmacokinetics of drugs and major metabolites in a target human population.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire
Loading ...
Support Center