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ACS Nano. 2016 Aug 23;10(8):7866-73. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.6b03722. Epub 2016 Jul 21.

Ultrathin 2D Photodetectors Utilizing Chemical Vapor Deposition Grown WS2 With Graphene Electrodes.

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Department of Materials, University of Oxford , Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH, United Kingdom.


In this report, graphene (Gr) is used as a 2D electrode and monolayer WS2 as the active semiconductor in ultrathin photodetector devices. All of the 2D materials are grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and thus pose as a viable route to scalability. The monolayer thickness of both electrode and semiconductor gives these photodetectors ∼2 nm thickness. We show that graphene is different to conventional metal (Au) electrodes due to the finite density of states from the Dirac cones of the valence and conduction bands, which enables the photoresponsivity to be modulated by electrostatic gating and light input control. We demonstrate lateral Gr-WS2-Gr photodetectors with photoresponsivities reaching 3.5 A/W under illumination power densities of 2.5 × 10(7) mW/cm(2). The performance of monolayer WS2 is compared to bilayer WS2 in photodetectors and we show that increased photoresponsivity is achieved in the thicker bilayer WS2 crystals due to increased optical absorption. This approach of incorporating graphene electrodes in lateral TMD based devices provides insights on the contact engineering in 2D optoelectronics, which is crucial for the development of high performing ultrathin photodetector arrays for versatile applications.


WS2; graphene; heterostructures; photodetectors; surface transfer doping


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