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Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Jul 16;17(7). pii: E1149. doi: 10.3390/ijms17071149.

Behavioral Abnormality Induced by Enhanced Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Activity under Dietary Zinc Deficiency and Its Usefulness as a Model.

Author information

1
Department of Neurophysiology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan. takedaa@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp.
2
Department of Neurophysiology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan. tamano@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp.
3
Department of Neurophysiology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan. s16114@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp.
4
Department of Neurophysiology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan. s16115@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp.

Abstract

Dietary zinc deficiency increases glucocorticoid secretion from the adrenal cortex via enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity and induces neuropsychological symptoms, i.e., behavioral abnormality. Behavioral abnormality is due to the increase in glucocorticoid secretion rather than disturbance of brain zinc homeostasis, which occurs after the increase in glucocorticoid secretion. A major target of glucocorticoids is the hippocampus and their actions are often associated with disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission, which may be linked to behavioral abnormality, such as depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior under zinc deficiency. Glucocorticoid-mediated disturbance of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus is also involved in the pathophysiology of, not only psychiatric disorders, such as depression, but also neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease. The evidence suggests that zinc-deficient animals are models for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), as well as depression. To understand validity to apply zinc-deficient animals as a behavioral abnormality model, this paper deals with the effect of antidepressive drugs and herbal medicines on hippocampal dysfunctions and behavioral abnormality, which are induced by enhanced HPA axis activity under dietary zinc deficiency.

KEYWORDS:

behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia; glucocorticoid; glutamate excitotoxicity; herbal medicine; hippocampus; zinc deficiency

PMID:
27438830
PMCID:
PMC4964522
DOI:
10.3390/ijms17071149
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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