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Curr Opin Lipidol. 2016 Oct;27(5):507-12. doi: 10.1097/MOL.0000000000000334.

Intestinal phospholipid and lysophospholipid metabolism in cardiometabolic disease.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology, Metabolic Disease Research Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Phospholipids are major constituents in the intestinal lumen after meal consumption. This article highlights current literature suggesting the contributory role of intestinal phospholipid metabolism toward cardiometabolic disease manifestation.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Group 1b phospholipase A2 (PLA2g1b) catalyzes phospholipid hydrolysis in the intestinal lumen. The digestive product lysophospholipid, particularly lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), has a direct role in mediating chylomicron assembly and secretion. The LPC in the digestive tract is further catabolized into lysophosphatidic acid and choline via autotaxin-mediated and autotaxin-independent mechanisms. The LPC and lysophosphatidic acid absorbed through the digestive tract and transported to the plasma directly promote systemic inflammation and cell dysfunction, leading to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and obesity/diabetes. The choline moiety generated in the digestive tract can also be used by gut bacteria to generate trimethylamine, which is subsequently transported to the liver and oxidized into trimethylamine-N-oxide that also enhances atherosclerosis and cardiovascular abnormalities.

SUMMARY:

Products of phospholipid metabolism in the intestine through PLA2g1b and autotaxin-mediated pathways directly contribute to cardiometabolic diseases through multiple mechanisms. The implication of these studies is that therapeutic inhibition of PLA2g1b and autotaxin in the digestive tract may be a viable approach for cardiovascular and metabolic disease intervention.

PMID:
27438680
PMCID:
PMC5125253
DOI:
10.1097/MOL.0000000000000334
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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