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J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016 Dec;63(6):579-584.

Functional Dyspepsia: An Enigma in a Conundrum.

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*Pediatric Department, University of Messina, Messina, Italy †Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


As defined by Rome III, there are 4 abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders in children: irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia (FD), abdominal migraine, and functional abdominal pain. Dyspepsia is a constellation of symptoms referable to the gastroduodenal region of the upper gastrointestinal tract. FD refers to dyspeptic symptoms that cannot currently be explained by an organic cause, and affects 25% to 40% of the adult population over a lifetime. In children, this condition results in increased specialist consultations, with reported prevalence between 3% and 27%. The Rome III criteria for pediatric FD include the presence or persistence of recurrent pain or discomfort centered in the upper abdomen, without evidence of organic disease or change in frequency of stools. Symptoms must be chronic, occurring at least weekly and over a period of at least 6 months. The goal of this article is to provide a narrative review of diagnosis and management of the FD in the pediatric population. A comprehensive search of published literature using the PubMed ( database was carried out to identify all articles published in English from 1998 to November 2015, using 3 key terms; "FD," "functional gastrointestinal disorders," and "children."

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