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Reprod Sci. 2017 Mar;24(3):355-368. doi: 10.1177/1933719116658705. Epub 2016 Jul 20.

Involvement of Luteinizing Hormone in Alzheimer Disease Development in Elderly Women.

Rao CV1,2,3.

Author information

1
1 Department of Cellular Biology and Pharmacology, Reproduction and Development Program, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.
2
2 Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Reproduction and Development Program, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.
3
3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproduction and Development Program, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.

Abstract

Alzheimer disease (AD) is a slow progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects more elderly women than elderly men. It impairs memory, typically progresses into multidomain cognitive decline that destroys the quality of life, and ultimately leads to death. About 5.3 million older Americans are now living with this disease, and this number is projected to rise to 14 million by 2050. Annual health-care costs in the United States alone are projected to increase to about US$1.1 trillion by 2050. The initial theory that decreasing estrogen levels leads to AD development in postmenopausal women has been proven inconclusive. For example, Women's Health Research Initiative Memory Study and the population-based nested case-control study have failed to demonstrate that estrogen/progesterone (hormone replacement therapy [HRT]) or estrogen replacement therapy could prevent the cognitive decline or reduce the risk of AD. This led to the realization that AD development could be due to a progressive increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in postmenopausal women. Accordingly, a large number of studies have demonstrated that an increase in LH levels is positively correlated with neuropathological, behavioral, and cognitive changes in AD. In addition, LH has been shown to promote amyloidogenic pathway of precursor protein metabolism and deposition of amyloid β plaques in the hippocampus, a region involved in AD. Cognate receptors that mediate LH effects are abundantly expressed in the hippocampus. Reducing the LH levels by treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists could provide therapeutic benefits. Despite these advances, many questions remain and require further research.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer disease; Aβ plaques; LH/hCG receptors; androgens; estrogens; luteinizing hormone; neurofibrillary tangles

PMID:
27436369
DOI:
10.1177/1933719116658705
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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