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Environ Geochem Health. 2017 Aug;39(4):865-877. doi: 10.1007/s10653-016-9856-7. Epub 2016 Jul 19.

Investigating into composition, distribution, sources and health risk of phthalic acid esters in street dust of Xi'an City, Northwest China.

Author information

1
College of Tourism and Environment, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, 710119, People's Republic of China. wanglijun@snnu.edu.cn.
2
College of Tourism and Environment, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, 710119, People's Republic of China.
3
College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York, 1 Forestry Dr., Syracuse, NY, 13201, USA.

Abstract

Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are widely used as plasticizers and in consumer products, which may enter the environment and present risks to human health. U.S. EPA classifies six PAEs as priority pollutants, which could be accumulated in street dust at the interface of atmosphere, biosphere and geosphere. This study collected a total of 58 street dust samples from Xi'an City in Northwest China and analyzed for concentrations of the priority PAEs. Composition, distribution, sources and health risk of the PAEs were further examined. All the priority PAEs were detected in the street dust. The concentrations of individual PAEs varied between not detected and 183.19 mg/kg. The sum of the 6 priority PAEs (∑6PAEs) ranged from 0.87 to 250.30 mg/kg with a mean of 40.48 mg/kg. The most abundant PAEs in the street dust were di-n-butyl phthalate and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Higher concentrations of ∑6PAEs in the street dust were found in the south and west parts of Xi'an City as well as its urban center, which were possibly attributed to the prevailing northerly Asian winter monsoon. The PAEs in the street dust originated mainly from wide application of plasticizers as well as cosmetics and personal care products. The main pathways of human exposure to PAEs in the street dust were ingestion and dermal adsorption of dust particles. The non-cancer risk of human exposure to PAEs in the street dust was relatively low, while the risk to children was higher than that to adults. The cancer risk of human exposure to DEHP in the street dust was lower than the standard limit value of 10-6.

KEYWORDS:

Distribution; Health risk; Phthalic acid ester; Source; Street dust

PMID:
27435489
DOI:
10.1007/s10653-016-9856-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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