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Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics. 2016 Aug;14(4):207-15. doi: 10.1016/j.gpb.2016.04.004. Epub 2016 Jul 16.

Comparative Gene Expression Analysis of Mouse and Human Cardiac Maturation.

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Division of Cardiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Electronic address:
Department of Physics, Chuo University, Tokyo 112-8551, Japan.


Understanding how human cardiomyocytes mature is crucial to realizing stem cell-based heart regeneration, modeling adult heart diseases, and facilitating drug discovery. However, it is not feasible to analyze human samples for maturation due to inaccessibility to samples while cardiomyocytes mature during fetal development and childhood, as well as difficulty in avoiding variations among individuals. Using model animals such as mice can be a useful strategy; nonetheless, it is not well-understood whether and to what degree gene expression profiles during maturation are shared between humans and mice. Therefore, we performed a comparative gene expression analysis of mice and human samples. First, we examined two distinct mice microarray platforms for shared gene expression profiles, aiming to increase reliability of the analysis. We identified a set of genes displaying progressive changes during maturation based on principal component analysis. Second, we demonstrated that the genes identified had a differential expression pattern between adult and earlier stages (e.g., fetus) common in mice and humans. Our findings provide a foundation for further genetic studies of cardiomyocyte maturation.


Cardiac maturation; Comparative gene expression analysis; Feature selection; Microarray meta analysis; Principal component analysis

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