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J Neurovirol. 2016 Dec;22(6):789-798. Epub 2016 Jul 18.

Suicide risk and prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) among individuals infected with HIV-1 subtype C versus B in Southern Brazil.

Author information

1
Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. sergio.ma@ufpr.br.
2
Faculdades Pequeno Príncipe, Curitiba, Paraná; Instituto de Pesquisa Pelé Pequeno Príncipe, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. sergio.ma@ufpr.br.
3
Hospital de Clínicas, UFPR, Seção de Virologia, Setor Análises Clínicas, Rua Padre Camargo, 280, Curitiba, PR, 80060-240, Brasil. sergio.ma@ufpr.br.
4
Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.
5
University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
6
Faculdades Pequeno Príncipe, Curitiba, Paraná; Instituto de Pesquisa Pelé Pequeno Príncipe, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

Abstract

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is among the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders associated with HIV infection; however, its risks and neurobiologic correlates in diverse cultures are poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the frequency of MDD among HIV+ participants in southern Brazil. We hypothesized that the frequency and severity of MDD would be higher among individuals with HIV+ compared with HIV- and higher in HIV subtype B compared with C. Individuals with HIV (n = 39) as well as seronegative controls (n = 22) were enrolled in a cross-sectional, prospective, observational study. Current and lifetime history of MDD was diagnosed by MINI-Plus; symptom severity was assessed by Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Current and past episodes of MDD were significantly more frequent in the HIV+ versus HIV- group: current MDD, 15 (38.5 %) vs. 0 (0 %), p = 0.0004; past MDD, 24 (61.5 %) vs. 3 (13.6 %), p = 0.0004. The median BDI-II score in the HIV+ group was significantly higher than that in the HIV- (13 (8-27.5) vs. 2.5 (1-5.5); p < 0.0001). Current suicide risk, defined as during the last month, was found in 18 % of participants in the HIV-positive and none in the HIV-negative group. Neither current MDD frequency (8 (57.1 %) vs. 6 (40 %), p = 0.47) nor BDI-II score differed across subtypes B and C. HIV+ group may be more likely to experience current MDD than HIV-. This was the first study to compare the frequency and severity of MDD in HIV subtypes B and C; we found no difference between HIV subtypes B and C.

KEYWORDS:

Efavirenz; HIV-1; HIV-1 subtype B; HIV-1 subtype C; HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND); MDD

PMID:
27431676
PMCID:
PMC5130622
DOI:
10.1007/s13365-016-0454-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

SERGIO M. DE ALMEIDA, the author declare that have no conflict of interest. FRANCISCO JAIME BARBOSA, the author declare that have no conflict of interest. RUJVI KAMAT, the author declare that have no conflict of interest. ANA PAULA DE PEREIRA, the author declare that have no conflict of interest. SONIA M. RABONI, the author declare that have no conflict of interest. INDIANARA ROTTA, the author declare that have no conflict of interest. CLEA E. RIBEIRO, the author declare that have no conflict of interest. MARIANA CHERNER, the author declare that have no conflict of interest. RONALD J. ELLIS, the author declare that have no conflict of interest. JOSEPH HAMPTON ATKINSON, the author declare that have no conflict of interest.

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