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Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:1027525. doi: 10.1155/2016/1027525. Epub 2016 Jun 27.

MicroRNAs as Salivary Markers for Periodontal Diseases: A New Diagnostic Approach?

Author information

1
Department of Cariology, Endodontology and Periodontology, University of Leipzig, 04109 Leipzig, Germany.
2
Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry, and Molecular Diagnostics, University of Leipzig, 04109 Leipzig, Germany.
3
Department of Prosthodontics, University Medical Center Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany.

Abstract

The aim of this review is to discuss current findings regarding the roles of miRNAs in periodontal diseases and the potential use of saliva as a diagnostic medium for corresponding miRNA investigations. For periodontal disease, investigations have been restricted to tissue samples and five miRNAs, that is, miR-142-3p, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-203, and miR-223, were repeatedly validated in vivo and in vitro by different validation methods. Particularly noticeable are the small sample sizes, different internal controls, and different case definitions of periodontitis in in vivo studies. Beside of that, the validated miRNAs are associated with inflammation and therefore with various diseases. Furthermore, several studies successfully explored the use of salivary miRNA species for the diagnosis of oral cancer. Different cancer types were investigated and heterogeneous methodology was used; moreover, no overlap of results was found. In conclusion, five miRNAs have consistently been reported for periodontitis; however, their disease specificity, detectability, and expression in saliva and their importance as noninvasive markers are questionable. In principle, a salivary miRNA diagnostic method seems feasible. However, standardized criteria and protocols for preanalytics, measurements, and analysis should be established to obtain comparable results across different studies.

PMID:
27429973
PMCID:
PMC4939343
DOI:
10.1155/2016/1027525
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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