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Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017 Jan;69(1):185-193. doi: 10.1002/art.39814.

Association of Serum Calprotectin (S100A8/A9) Level With Disease Relapse in Proteinase 3-Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis.

Author information

1
University College London Centre for Nephrology, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK.
2
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.
3
Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio.
4
University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
5
Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts.
6
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.
7
Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York.
8
Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.
9
Immune Tolerance Network, San Francisco, California.
10
Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.
11
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

S100A8/A9 (calprotectin) has shown promise as a biomarker for predicting relapse in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). This study was undertaken to investigate serum S100A8/A9 level as a biomarker for predicting future relapse in a large cohort of patients with severe AAV.

METHODS:

Serum levels of S100A8/A9 were measured at baseline and months 1, 2, and 6 following treatment initiation in 144 patients in the Rituximab in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis trial (cyclophosphamide/azathioprine versus rituximab [RTX] for induction of remission) in whom complete remission was attained.

RESULTS:

Patients were divided into 4 groups: proteinase 3 (PR3)-ANCA with relapse (n = 37), PR3-ANCA without relapse (n = 56), myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA with relapse (n = 6), and MPO-ANCA without relapse (n = 45). Serum S100A8/A9 level decreased in all groups during the first 6 months of treatment. The percentage reduction from baseline to month 2 was significantly different between patients who experienced a relapse and those who did not in the PR3-ANCA group (P = 0.046). A significantly higher risk of relapse was associated with an increase in S100A8/A9 level between baseline and month 2 (P = 0.0043) and baseline and month 6 (P = 0.0029). Subgroup analysis demonstrated that patients treated with RTX who had increased levels of S100A8/A9 were at greatest risk of future relapse (P = 0.028).

CONCLUSION:

An increase in serum S100A8/A9 level by month 2 or 6 compared to baseline identifies a subgroup of PR3-ANCA patients treated with RTX who are at higher risk of relapse by 18 months. Since RTX is increasingly used for remission induction in PR3-ANCA-positive patients experiencing a relapse, S100A8/A9 level may assist in identifying those patients requiring more intensive or prolonged treatment.

PMID:
27428710
PMCID:
PMC5839649
DOI:
10.1002/art.39814
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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