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Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc. 2016 Sep-Oct;54(5):602-11.

[The third wave of cardiac surgery].

[Article in Spanish; Abstract available in Spanish from the publisher]

Author information

División de Cirugía Cardiotorácica, Hospital de Cardiología, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Ciudad de México, México.


in English, Spanish

A review of the history of cardiac surgery around the world is made divided into three stages, the first since the beginning of humanity until 300 years BC; the second moment shows how comes the platform that would give the anatomical and functional bases of the cardiovascular system. This historic moment includes: 1. the description and analysis of the function of blood and its components; 2. the description of the normal and abnormal Anatomy of the human heart and its vessels; 3. the anatomic and functional correlation: Foundation of the deductive thinking, and 4. the anatomic and functional integration with the clinic. Finally, the third wave, which is living today, is the stage of the technological explosion that begins with procedures as thoracoscopic surgery with the concept of reducing surgical trauma through minimum approach surgery. Also the use of robotics to solve some of the alterations in the CC, another is hybrid procedures and finally the use of fetal cardiac surgery.


Heart; History of medicine; Thoracic surgery

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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