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Thorac Surg Clin. 2016 Aug;26(3):243-9. doi: 10.1016/j.thorsurg.2016.04.005.

Mediastinal Staging: Endosonographic Ultrasound Lymph Node Biopsy or Mediastinoscopy.

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Fresno Medical Education Program, Advanced Interventional Thoracic Endoscopy/Interventional Pulmonology, Division of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine, University of California San Francisco (UCSF), 2335 East Kashian Lane, Suite 260, Fresno, CA 93701, USA. Electronic address:
Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, CHUM Endoscopic Tracheobronchial and Oesophageal Center (CETOC), Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, University of Montreal, 1560 Sherbrooke Street East, 8e CD, Pavillon Lachapelle, Suite D-8051, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1, Canada.


Combined endosonographic lymph node biopsy techniques are a minimally invasive alternative to surgical staging in non-small cell lung cancer and may be superior to standard mediastinoscopy and surgical mediastinal staging techniques. Endosonography allows for the biopsy of lymph nodes and metastases unattainable with standard mediastinoscopy. Standard cervical mediastinoscopy is an invasive procedure, which requires general anesthesia and is associated with higher risk, cost, and major complication rates compared with minimally invasive endosonographic biopsy techniques. Combined endosonographic procedures are the new gold standard in staging of non-small cell lung cancer when performed by an experienced operator.


Combined EBUS-EUS; Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS); Endoscopic lung cancer staging; Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS); Endosonographic lung cancer staging; Lung cancer staging; Mediastinoscopy

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