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J Voice. 2017 Mar;31(2):258.e7-258.e12. doi: 10.1016/j.jvoice.2016.05.018. Epub 2016 Jul 15.

Risk Factors for the Incidence of Perceived Voice Disorders in Elementary and Middle School Teachers.

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Universidade Católica de Pelotas, Brazil.
Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil.
Universidade Católica de Pelotas, Brazil. Electronic address:



This study aimed to identify risk factors for the incidence of perceived voice disorders in teachers, specifically related to the influence of common mental disorders.


This is a longitudinal quantitative study conducted in municipal schools.


We performed a data analysis of 469 teachers, reassessed 3 years after an initial study. The Voice Handicap Index was used to measure the impact of a probable voice problem with a cutoff value of 19 points. Mental disorder symptomatology was measured by the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (20 items), with a cutoff value of eight points. Bivariate analysis was conducted through Poisson regression to verify proportion differences in the occurrence of perceived voice disorders among the study's different categories of independent variables. The same technique of Poisson regression was used to assess risk factors for perceived voice disorder incidence in a specific hierarchic model.


The incidence of a perceived voice disorder was 17.1%. Teachers who lectured in fourth grade and below presented a risk of 20% less than those who lectured from the fifth grade up (P = 0.046). Teachers who reported taking a leave of absence because of their voice had a 32% more chance of a probable perceived voice disorder (P = 0.024). Teachers who presented a common mental disorder had twice the risk of perceived voice disorder (P > 0.001).


This study concluded that teachers presented a higher risk of developing a perceived voice disorder when they have the following features: lectured from fifth grade up, have gone on leave because of their voice, and showed behavior indicative of common mental disorder.


faculty; longitudinal studies; mental disorders; voice disorders; voice disturbance

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