Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016 Sep 1;166:263-7. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.06.030. Epub 2016 Jul 1.

The impact of flavoring on the rewarding and reinforcing value of e-cigarettes with nicotine among young adult smokers.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, United States. Electronic address: audrain@mail.med.upenn.edu.
2
Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, United States.
3
Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, United States.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Flavored e-cigarette use has risen rapidly, especially among young adults who also smoke cigarettes. We sought to determine whether flavoring enhances the subjective rewarding value, relative reinforcing value, and absolute reinforcing value of an e-cigarette with nicotine compared to an unflavored e-cigarette with nicotine.

METHODS:

Using a within-subjects design, young adult smokers (n=32) participated in three human laboratory sessions. Session 1 evaluated the rewarding value of flavoring by having participants rate unflavored and flavored e-cigarettes with nicotine. Session 2 assessed the relative reinforcing value of a flavored vs unflavored e-cigarette via a choice task that evaluated the willingness to "work" to hit targets on a computer screen to earn flavored or unflavored e-cigarette puffs. Session 3 measured the absolute reinforcing value of flavored versus unflavored e-cigarettes via a 90-min ad-libitum vaping session where puffs from each e-cigarette were counted.

RESULTS:

Subjective reward value was higher for the flavored versus the unflavored e-cigarette (β=0.83, CI 0.35-1.32, p=0.001). Participants worked harder for flavored e-cigarette puffs versus unflavored e-cigarette puffs (breakpoint=5.7; 597 responses versus 127 responses; β=460.733, CI 246.58-674.88, p<0.0001). Participants took twice as many flavored puffs than unflavored e-cigarette puffs (40 vs 23 puffs; IRR=2.028, CI 1.183-3.475, p=0.01).

CONCLUSIONS:

Flavoring enhances the rewarding and reinforcing value of e-cigarettes with nicotine, and thus their abuse liability in young adult smokers. Further research is necessary to determine whether the use of flavoring in e-cigarettes impacts cigarette smoking behavior among young adults.

KEYWORDS:

E-cigarettes; Flavoring; Smokers; Young adults

PMID:
27426010
PMCID:
PMC4995771
DOI:
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.06.030
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center