Send to

Choose Destination
Arch Toxicol. 2017 Jan;91(1):97-107. doi: 10.1007/s00204-016-1804-x. Epub 2016 Jul 18.

Vitamin D and chronic diseases: the current state of the art.

Author information

Ios and Coleman Medicina Futura Medical Center, University "Federico II", Naples, Italy.
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy.
Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Angers University Hospital, University Memory Clinic, UPRES EA 4638, University of Angers, UNAM, Angers, France.
Department of Medical Biophysics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
Division of Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Umberto I Hospital, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy.
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.
The Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
Vitamin D Council, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA.
Department of Medicine, Operative Unit of Andrology and Medicine of Human Reproduction, University of Padova, Padua, Italy.
Department of Cardiology, Swiss Cardiovascular Center Bern, Bern University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland.
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloníki, Greece.
Comando Brigata Alpina "Julia"/Multinational Land Force, Medical Service, Udine, Italy.
Medical Clinic V (Nephrology, Hypertensiology, Endocrinology, Diabetology, Rheumatology), Mannheim Medical Faculty, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.
Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
Synlab Academy, Synlab Holding Germany GmbH, Mannheim, Augsburg, Germany.
Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Fertility Techniques Structure, University Hospital "S. Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d'Aragona", Salerno, Italy.
Department of Sports Science and Wellness, "Parthenope" University Naples, Naples, Italy.
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University "Federico II", Naples, Italy.


The objective was to provide the current state of the art regarding the role of vitamin D in chronic diseases (osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, dementia, autism, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, male and female fertility). The document was drawn up by panelists that provided their contribution according to their own scientific expertise. Each scientific expert supplied a first draft manuscript on a specific aspect of the document's topic that was subjected to voting by all experts as "yes" (agreement with the content and/or wording) or "no" (disagreement). The adopted rule was that statements supported by ≥75 % of votes would be immediately accepted, while those with <25 % would be rejected outright. Others would be subjected to further discussion and subsequent voting, where ≥67 % support or, in an eventual third round, a majority of ≥50 % would be needed. This document finds that the current evidence support a role for vitamin D in bone health but not in other health conditions. However, subjects with vitamin D deficiency have been found to be at high risk of developing chronic diseases. Therefore, although at the present time there is not sufficient evidence to recommend vitamin D supplementation as treatment of chronic diseases, the treatment of vitamin D deficiency should be desiderable in order to reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases.


Autism; Cancer; Cardiovascular diseases; Dementia; Diabetes mellitus; Endometriosis; Environment; Fertility; Hypogonadism; Lifestyle; Musculoskeletal disorders; PCOS; Vitamin D

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center