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Arch Toxicol. 2017 Jan;91(1):97-107. doi: 10.1007/s00204-016-1804-x. Epub 2016 Jul 18.

Vitamin D and chronic diseases: the current state of the art.

Author information

  • 1Ios and Coleman Medicina Futura Medical Center, University "Federico II", Naples, Italy.
  • 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy.
  • 3Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Angers University Hospital, University Memory Clinic, UPRES EA 4638, University of Angers, UNAM, Angers, France.
  • 4Department of Medical Biophysics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
  • 5Division of Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Umberto I Hospital, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy.
  • 6Department of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.
  • 7The Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
  • 8Vitamin D Council, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA.
  • 9Department of Medicine, Operative Unit of Andrology and Medicine of Human Reproduction, University of Padova, Padua, Italy.
  • 10Department of Cardiology, Swiss Cardiovascular Center Bern, Bern University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland.
  • 11Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
  • 12Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloníki, Greece.
  • 13Comando Brigata Alpina "Julia"/Multinational Land Force, Medical Service, Udine, Italy.
  • 14Medical Clinic V (Nephrology, Hypertensiology, Endocrinology, Diabetology, Rheumatology), Mannheim Medical Faculty, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.
  • 15Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
  • 16Synlab Academy, Synlab Holding Germany GmbH, Mannheim, Augsburg, Germany.
  • 17Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Fertility Techniques Structure, University Hospital "S. Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d'Aragona", Salerno, Italy.
  • 18Department of Sports Science and Wellness, "Parthenope" University Naples, Naples, Italy.
  • 19Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  • 20Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University "Federico II", Naples, Italy.


The objective was to provide the current state of the art regarding the role of vitamin D in chronic diseases (osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, dementia, autism, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, male and female fertility). The document was drawn up by panelists that provided their contribution according to their own scientific expertise. Each scientific expert supplied a first draft manuscript on a specific aspect of the document's topic that was subjected to voting by all experts as "yes" (agreement with the content and/or wording) or "no" (disagreement). The adopted rule was that statements supported by ≥75 % of votes would be immediately accepted, while those with <25 % would be rejected outright. Others would be subjected to further discussion and subsequent voting, where ≥67 % support or, in an eventual third round, a majority of ≥50 % would be needed. This document finds that the current evidence support a role for vitamin D in bone health but not in other health conditions. However, subjects with vitamin D deficiency have been found to be at high risk of developing chronic diseases. Therefore, although at the present time there is not sufficient evidence to recommend vitamin D supplementation as treatment of chronic diseases, the treatment of vitamin D deficiency should be desiderable in order to reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases.


Autism; Cancer; Cardiovascular diseases; Dementia; Diabetes mellitus; Endometriosis; Environment; Fertility; Hypogonadism; Lifestyle; Musculoskeletal disorders; PCOS; Vitamin D

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