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Schizophr Res. 2016 Oct;176(2-3):191-195. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2016.06.031. Epub 2016 Aug 8.

Peripheral immuno-inflammatory abnormalities in ultra-high risk of developing psychosis.

Author information

1
Program for Recognition and Intervention in Individuals in At-Risk Mental States (PRISMA), São Paulo, Brazil; Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Clinical Neuroscience (LiNC), Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil; Research Group on Behavioral and Molecular Neuroscience of Bipolar Disorder, São Paulo, Brazil.
2
Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Clinical Neuroscience (LiNC), Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil; Research Group on Behavioral and Molecular Neuroscience of Bipolar Disorder, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Psychiatry, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
3
Program for Recognition and Intervention in Individuals in At-Risk Mental States (PRISMA), São Paulo, Brazil; Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit (MDPU), University Health Network (UHN), University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
4
Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Clinical Neuroscience (LiNC), Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil; Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India.
5
Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Clinical Neuroscience (LiNC), Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil.
6
Program for Recognition and Intervention in Individuals in At-Risk Mental States (PRISMA), São Paulo, Brazil; Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Clinical Neuroscience (LiNC), Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil.
7
Program for Recognition and Intervention in Individuals in At-Risk Mental States (PRISMA), São Paulo, Brazil; Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Clinical Neuroscience (LiNC), Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil; Research Group on Behavioral and Molecular Neuroscience of Bipolar Disorder, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: elisabrietzke@hotmail.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Immuno-inflammatory imbalances have been documented in schizophrenia, but very little is known about the immunological changes prior to the onset of disease.

OBJECTIVE:

This work aimed to compare serum levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in young subjects at ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing psychosis with age- and sex-matched healthy controls.

METHODS:

A total of 12 UHR and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) subjects were enrolled in this study. Clinical profile was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS), Semi-Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I (SCID-I) or Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL), and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. Serum interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17 were measured by flow cytometry using the Th1/Th2/Th17 cytometric bead array.

RESULTS:

Compared with the healthy control group, patients in UHR showed increased IL-6 levels (Z=-2.370, p=0.018) and decreased IL-17 levels in serum (Z=-1.959, p=0.050). Levels of IL-17 positively correlated to the values in GAF symptoms (rho=0.632, p=0.028).

CONCLUSION:

Our results suggest that immunological imbalances could be present in the early stages of psychosis, including in at-risk stages. Future studies should replicate and expand these results.

KEYWORDS:

Cytokines; Inflammation; Prodromal; Psychosis; Schizophrenia; Ultra-high risk

PMID:
27424266
DOI:
10.1016/j.schres.2016.06.031
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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