Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Eur J Neurosci. 2016 Sep;44(6):2357-68. doi: 10.1111/ejn.13334. Epub 2016 Aug 10.

Timing matters: open-loop stimulation does not improve overnight consolidation of word pairs in humans.

Author information

1
Institute for Neuro- and Bioinformatics, University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23562, Lübeck, Germany. weigenand@inb.uni-luebeck.de.
2
Graduate School for Computing in Medicine and Life Science, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany. weigenand@inb.uni-luebeck.de.
3
Center for Brain, Behavior and Metabolism, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
4
Institute for Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
5
Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23562, Lübeck, Germany.
6
Institute for Neuro- and Bioinformatics, University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23562, Lübeck, Germany.
7
Graduate School for Computing in Medicine and Life Science, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
8
Graduate School for Computing in Medicine and Life Science, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany. lisa.marshall@pharma.uni-luebeck.de.
9
Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23562, Lübeck, Germany. lisa.marshall@pharma.uni-luebeck.de.

Abstract

The application of auditory clicks during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep phase-locked to the up state of the slow oscillation (closed-loop stimulation) has previously been shown to enhance the consolidation of declarative memories. We designed and applied sequences of three clicks during deep NREM sleep to achieve a quasi-phase-dependent open-loop stimulation. This stimulation was successful in eliciting slow oscillation power in the stimulation period. Although fast and slow spindle power were markedly decreased during the stimulation period, memory consolidation did not differ from control. During putative up states fast spindle power remained, however, at control levels. We conclude that concurrence of slow oscillations and fast spindles suffices to maintain memory consolidation at control levels despite an overall decreased spindle activity.

KEYWORDS:

memory; sleep; slow oscillations; spindles; thalamocortical system

PMID:
27422437
PMCID:
PMC5113809
DOI:
10.1111/ejn.13334
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center