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J Infect Public Health. 2017 May - Jun;10(3):339-342. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2016.06.001. Epub 2016 Jul 12.

Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis in a vaccinated and immunocompetent child.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, São João Hospital, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address: anafalmeida@hotmail.com.
2
Department of Pediatrics, São João Hospital, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address: eunice_trindade@netcabo.pt.
3
Department of Pediatrics, Infectious Diseases Unit, São João Hospital, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address: arturbonitovitor@gmail.com.
4
Department of Pediatrics, Infectious Diseases Unit, São João Hospital, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address: margaridamtavares47@gmail.com.

Abstract

Invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease decreased dramatically after the introduction of conjugate vaccine in routine immunization schedules. We report a case of a fifteen-months-old girl, previously healthy and vaccinated, admitted in the emergency room with fever and vomiting. She was irritable and the Brudzinski's sign was positive. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed pleocytosis and high protein level. Empiric intravenous antibiotics (ceftriaxone and vancomycin) were administered for suspected bacterial meningitis during 10 days. Serotyping of the Haemophilus influenzae strain found in CSF revealed a serotype b. After one year of follow-up no Hib meningitis sequelae were noted. Despite vaccination compliance and absence of risk factors, invasive Hib disease can occur due to vaccine failure. Efforts to keep the low incidence of invasive Hib disease should be directed to the maintenance of high vaccination coverage rates, combined with the notification and surveillance strategies already implemented in each country.

KEYWORDS:

Children; Haemophilus influenzae type b; Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; Meningitis; Vaccine failure

PMID:
27422142
DOI:
10.1016/j.jiph.2016.06.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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