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Healthcare (Basel). 2016 May 17;4(2). pii: E27. doi: 10.3390/healthcare4020027.

Surface Electromyographic (SEMG) Biofeedback for Chronic Low Back Pain.

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Productive Rehabilitation Institute of Dallas for Ergonomics (PRIDE) Research Foundation, 5701 Maple Ave. #100, Dallas, TX 75235, USA.


Biofeedback is a process in which biological information is measured and fed back to a patient and clinician for the purpose of gaining increased awareness and control over physiological domains. Surface electromyography (SEMG), a measure of muscle activity, allows both a patient and clinician to have direct and immediate access to muscle functioning that is not possible with manual palpation or visual observation. SEMG biofeedback can be used to help "down-train" elevated muscle activity or to "up-train" weak, inhibited, or paretic muscles. This article presents a historical and clinical overview of SEMG and its use in chronic low back pain assessment and biofeedback training.


biofeedback; chronic low back pain (CLBP); flexion-relaxation; surface electromyography (SEMG)

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