Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Am Heart Assoc. 2016 Jun 13;5(6). pii: e003725. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.116.003725.

Effectiveness and Safety of Dabigatran, Rivaroxaban, and Apixaban Versus Warfarin in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation.

Author information

1
Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN Division of Health Care Policy and Research, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN yao.xiaoxi@mayo.edu.
2
Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN Division of Health Care Policy and Research, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ.
3
Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
4
Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN Department of Emergency Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
5
Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
6
Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN Division of Health Care Policy and Research, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN Optum Labs, Cambridge, MA.
7
Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The introduction of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants has been a major advance for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation; however, outcomes achieved in clinical trials may not translate to routine practice. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban by comparing each agent with warfarin.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Using a large US insurance database, we identified privately insured and Medicare Advantage patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who were users of apixaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or warfarin between October 1, 2010, and June 30, 2015. We created 3 matched cohorts using 1:1 propensity score matching: apixaban versus warfarin (n=15 390), dabigatran versus warfarin (n=28 614), and rivaroxaban versus warfarin (n=32 350). Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we found that for stroke or systemic embolism, apixaban was associated with lower risk (hazard ratio [HR] 0.67, 95% CI 0.46-0.98, P=0.04), but dabigatran and rivaroxaban were associated with a similar risk (dabigatran: HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.76-1.26, P=0.98; rivaroxaban: HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.72-1.19, P=0.56). For major bleeding, apixaban and dabigatran were associated with lower risk (apixaban: HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.34-0.59, P<0.001; dabigatran: HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.67-0.94, P<0.01), and rivaroxaban was associated with a similar risk (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.90-1.20], P=0.60). All non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants were associated with a lower risk of intracranial bleeding.

CONCLUSIONS:

In patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, apixaban was associated with lower risks of both stroke and major bleeding, dabigatran was associated with similar risk of stroke but lower risk of major bleeding, and rivaroxaban was associated with similar risks of both stroke and major bleeding in comparison to warfarin.

KEYWORDS:

atrial fibrillation; bleeding; non–vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants; stroke; warfarin

PMID:
27412905
PMCID:
PMC4937291
DOI:
10.1161/JAHA.116.003725
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center