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Cell Metab. 2016 Jul 12;24(1):63-74. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2016.06.016.

Effects of Gut Microbiota Manipulation by Antibiotics on Host Metabolism in Obese Humans: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Author information

1
Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center+, 6229ER Maastricht, The Netherlands; Top Institute Food and Nutrition, 6700AN Wageningen, The Netherlands.
2
Top Institute Food and Nutrition, 6700AN Wageningen, The Netherlands; Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, 6703HB Wageningen, The Netherlands.
3
Top Institute Food and Nutrition, 6700AN Wageningen, The Netherlands; Department of Surgery, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center+, 6229ER Maastricht, The Netherlands.
4
Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center+, 6229ER Maastricht, The Netherlands.
5
NNF Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Department of Biomedical Sciences, The Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.
6
Top Institute Food and Nutrition, 6700AN Wageningen, The Netherlands; Department of Vascular Medicine and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Amsterdam, 1100DD Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
7
Top Institute Food and Nutrition, 6700AN Wageningen, The Netherlands; Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beatrix Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Groningen, 9713GZ Groningen, The Netherlands.
8
Department of Surgery, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center+, 6229ER Maastricht, The Netherlands; Department of HPB Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Institute of Liver and Digestive Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
9
Top Institute Food and Nutrition, 6700AN Wageningen, The Netherlands; Nutrition, Metabolism and Genomics group, Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, 6700EV Wageningen, The Netherlands.
10
Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center+, 6229ER Maastricht, The Netherlands; Top Institute Food and Nutrition, 6700AN Wageningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: e.blaak@maastrichtuniversity.nl.

Abstract

The gut microbiota has been implicated in obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, although evidence in humans is scarce. We investigated how gut microbiota manipulation by antibiotics (7-day administration of amoxicillin, vancomycin, or placebo) affects host metabolism in 57 obese, prediabetic men. Vancomycin, but not amoxicillin, decreased bacterial diversity and reduced Firmicutes involved in short-chain fatty acid and bile acid metabolism, concomitant with altered plasma and/or fecal metabolite concentrations. Adipose tissue gene expression of oxidative pathways was upregulated by antibiotics, whereas immune-related pathways were downregulated by vancomycin. Antibiotics did not affect tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, energy/substrate metabolism, postprandial hormones and metabolites, systemic inflammation, gut permeability, and adipocyte size. Importantly, energy harvest, adipocyte size, and whole-body insulin sensitivity were not altered at 8-week follow-up, despite a still considerably altered microbial composition, indicating that interference with adult microbiota by 7-day antibiotic treatment has no clinically relevant impact on metabolic health in obese humans.

PMID:
27411009
DOI:
10.1016/j.cmet.2016.06.016
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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