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Aging (Albany NY). 2016 Jul;8(7):1416-31. doi: 10.18632/aging.100994.

Long-term moderate calorie restriction inhibits inflammation without impairing cell-mediated immunity: a randomized controlled trial in non-obese humans.

Author information

1
The Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
2
Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA.
3
University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA.
4
Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA.
5
Comparative Medicine and Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.
6
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA.
7
Baylor College of Medicine and Michael E DeBakey VA Medical Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
8
Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia University School of Medicine, Brescia, Italy.
9
CEINGE Biotecnologie Avanzate, Napoli, Italy.

Abstract

Calorie restriction (CR) inhibits inflammation and slows aging in many animal species, but in rodents housed in pathogen-free facilities, CR impairs immunity against certain pathogens. However, little is known about the effects of long-term moderate CR on immune function in humans. In this multi-center, randomized clinical trial to determine CR's effect on inflammation and cell-mediated immunity, 218 healthy non-obese adults (20-50 y), were assigned 25% CR (n=143) or an ad-libitum (AL) diet (n=75), and outcomes tested at baseline, 12, and 24 months of CR. CR induced a 10.4% weight loss over the 2-y period. Relative to AL group, CR reduced circulating inflammatory markers, including total WBC and lymphocyte counts, ICAM-1 and leptin. Serum CRP and TNF-α concentrations were about 40% and 50% lower in CR group, respectively. CR had no effect on the delayed-type hypersensitivity skin response or antibody response to vaccines, nor did it cause difference in clinically significant infections. In conclusion, long-term moderate CR without malnutrition induces a significant and persistent inhibition of inflammation without impairing key in vivo indicators of cell-mediated immunity. Given the established role of these pro-inflammatory molecules in the pathogenesis of multiple chronic diseases, these CR-induced adaptations suggest a shift toward a healthy phenotype.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00427193.

KEYWORDS:

calorie restriction; cell-mediated immunity; familial longevity; human; inflammation; vaccine response

PMID:
27410480
PMCID:
PMC4993339
DOI:
10.18632/aging.100994
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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