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Opt Express. 2016 May 16;24(10):10424-34. doi: 10.1364/OE.24.010424.

Coherent cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy.

Abstract

Dual-comb spectroscopy allows for the rapid, multiplexed acquisition of high-resolution spectra without the need for moving parts or low-resolution dispersive optics. This method of broadband spectroscopy is most often accomplished via tight phase locking of two mode-locked lasers or via sophisticated signal processing algorithms, and therefore, long integration times of phase coherent signals are difficult to achieve. Here we demonstrate an alternative approach to dual-comb spectroscopy using two phase modulator combs originating from a single continuous-wave laser capable of > 2 hours of coherent real-time averaging. The dual combs were generated by driving the phase modulators with step-recovery diodes where each comb consisted of > 250 teeth with 203 MHz spacing and spanned > 50 GHz region in the near-infrared. The step-recovery diodes are passive devices that provide low-phase-noise harmonics for efficient coupling into an enhancement cavity at picowatt optical powers. With this approach, we demonstrate the sensitivity to simultaneously monitor ambient levels of CO<sub>2</sub>, CO, HDO, and H<sub>2</sub>O in a single spectral region at a maximum acquisition rate of 150 kHz. Robust, compact, low-cost and widely tunable dual-comb systems could enable a network of distributed multiplexed optical sensors.

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