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Clin Nutr. 2016 Jun 30. pii: S0261-5614(16)30147-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2016.06.014. [Epub ahead of print]

Tomato-based randomized controlled trial in prostate cancer patients: Effect on PSA.

Author information

  • 1Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: ingvild.paur@medisin.uio.no.
  • 2Division of Cancer Medicine, Transplantation and Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: WLL@ous-hf.no.
  • 3Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: s.k.bohn@medisin.uio.no.
  • 4Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: erik@hulander.se.
  • 5Division of Cancer Medicine, Transplantation and Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: wilkle@so-hf.no.
  • 6Division of Cancer Medicine, Transplantation and Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: LVLAT@ous-hf.no.
  • 7Division of Cancer Medicine, Transplantation and Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway; Department of Urology, Akershus University Hospital, 1748 Lørenskog, Norway. Electronic address: axcrona@online.no.
  • 8Department of Medical Biochemistry, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: nilbol@ous-hf.no.
  • 9Department of Medical Biochemistry, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway; Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, PO Box 1171, Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: BJC@ous-hf.no.
  • 10Department of Biostatistics, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1122, Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: petter.laake@medisin.uio.no.
  • 11Division of Cancer Medicine, Transplantation and Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway; Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, PO Box 1171, Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: k.a.tasken@medisin.uio.no.
  • 12Division of Cancer Medicine, Transplantation and Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: aud.svindland@medisin.uio.no.
  • 13Division of Cancer Medicine, Transplantation and Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: lamaer@ous-hf.no.
  • 14Division of Cancer Medicine, Transplantation and Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: BJORB@ous-hf.no.
  • 15Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: m.h.carlsen@medisin.uio.no.
  • 16Division of Cancer Medicine, Transplantation and Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: s.d.fossa@medisin.uio.no.
  • 17Division of Cancer Medicine, Transplantation and Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: sigbjorn.smeland@medisin.uio.no.
  • 18Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: a.s.karlsen@medisin.uio.no.
  • 19Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1046, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway; Division of Cancer Medicine, Transplantation and Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4950, Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: rune.blomhoff@medisin.uio.no.

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

The effect of lycopene-containing foods in prostate cancer development remains undetermined. We tested whether a lycopene-rich tomato intervention could reduce the levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate cancer patients.

METHODS:

Prior to their curative treatment, 79 patients with prostate cancer were randomized to a nutritional intervention with either 1) tomato products containing 30 mg lycopene per day; 2) tomato products plus selenium, omega-3 fatty acids, soy isoflavones, grape/pomegranate juice, and green/black tea (tomato-plus); or 3) control diet for 3 weeks.

RESULTS:

The main analysis, which included patients in all risk categories, did not reveal differences in changes of PSA-values between the intervention and control groups. Post-hoc, exploratory analyses within intermediate risk (n = 41) patients based on tumor classification and Gleason score post-surgery, revealed that median PSA decreased significantly in the tomato group as compared to controls (-2.9% and +6.5% respectively, p = 0.016). In separate post-hoc analyses, we observed that median PSA-values decreased by 1% in patients with the highest increases in plasma lycopene, selenium and C20:5 n-3 fatty acid, compared to an 8.5% increase in the patients with the lowest increase in lycopene, selenium and C20:5 n-3 fatty acid (p = 0.003). Also, PSA decreased in patients with the highest increase in lycopene alone (p = 0.009).

CONCLUSIONS:

Three week nutritional interventions with tomato-products alone or in combination with selenium and n-3 fatty acids lower PSA in patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer. Our observation suggests that the effect may depend on both aggressiveness of the disease and the blood levels of lycopene, selenium and omega-3 fatty acids.

KEYWORDS:

Diet; Lycopene; Prostate cancer; Prostate specific antigen; Selenium; Tomato

PMID:
27406859
DOI:
10.1016/j.clnu.2016.06.014
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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