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Cell Microbiol. 2017 Feb;19(2). doi: 10.1111/cmi.12648. Epub 2016 Aug 9.

TLR ligands and butyrate increase Pyy expression through two distinct but inter-regulated pathways.

Author information

1
MICALIS Institute, INRA, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, France.
2
MGP MetaGenoPolis, INRA, Université Paris-Saclay, Jouy en Josas, France.

Abstract

The intestinal epithelium is an active barrier separating the host from its microbiota. It senses microbial compounds through expression of a wide range of receptors including the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs have been shown to regulate epithelium permeability or secretion of defensin by Paneth cells. However, the expression and function of TLRs in enteroendocrine L-cells, a specific subtype of intestinal cells secreting PYY and GLP-1, have not yet been assessed. PYY and GLP-1 are implicated in regulation of gut motility, food intake and insulin secretion, and are of great interest regarding obesity and type 2 diabetes. Using a cellular model of human L-cells and a reporter system for NF-κB activation pathway, we reported functional expression of TLRs in these cells. Stimulation with specific TLR-agonists increased expression of Pyy but not Proglucagon in an NF-κB-dependent manner. Moreover, the effect of TLR stimulation was additive to butyrate, a product of bacterial fermentation, on Pyy expression. Additionally, butyrate also increased Tlr expression, including Tlr4, and the NF-κB response to TLR stimulation. Altogether, our results demonstrated a role of TLRs in the modulation of Pyy expression and the importance of butyrate, a product of bacterial fermentation in regulation of microbial TLR-dependent sensing.

PMID:
27405092
DOI:
10.1111/cmi.12648
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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